Recycling of the hottest packaging waste

2022-09-23
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Recycling of packaging waste (middle)

Table 3 gives the data of plastic recycling and treatment in Europe, the United States, Japan and China at the end of the last century. Table 4 shows the recycling data of glass bottles in various countries at the end of last century. At the end of last century, the recovery rate of two-piece cans in Japan reached 43 1% and 62% in the United States 4; The regeneration rate of steel drums in various countries is in the range of 20 ~ 46%. Table 3 plastic recycling and treatment data in Europe, the United States, Japan and China

tab 3 the data of reclaimed and disposed

P lastics in Europe, USA, Japan and China

national recovery rate/% incineration rate/% landfill rate/%

Western Europe 153055

Japan 136423

United States 141670

China 10189

from the above data, we can see that there is still a certain gap between China and foreign advanced countries in packaging recycling. The reason is nothing more than policy and technology. The gap between China and developed countries in terms of packaging waste recycling policies, regulations, standards and so on is the most noteworthy

Germany is the country that pays the most attention to the recycling of packaging waste. In 1991, it published the German decree on avoiding and utilizing packaging waste, clarifying the recycling obligations at all levels, especially imposing a deposit of 0.5% on drinks, detergents and paint bottles Under the 5-2 mark system, a two-way recycling company (duales system in Deutschland gm2hb, hereinafter referred to as DSD) was established, funded by 95 companies from the packaging and consumer goods manufacturing industry association and the business association. In 1995, it grew to more than 600 shareholders. Members' commodity packaging is allowed to use the green dot mark, indicating that the packaging is a retail packaging, and its packaging materials are recyclable. Members will pay different fees to DSD according to different packaging products: Plastic 2 95 mark/kg, glass 0 15 mark/kg, and the processing fee shall be added according to the volume of composite packaging; At the same time, the enterprise also needs to pay the plastic recyclable certification fee to VGK testing agency. According to statistics in 1998, 5.6 million tons of plastic packaging were recycled and 5.5 million tons were recycled, including 2.7 million tons of glass, 1.4 million tons of paper products, 600000 tons of plastic and 37.5 million tons of tinplate 50000 tons, beverage boxes and other composite materials 34 50000 tons, aluminum 4 30000 tons, accounting for 81.5% of the sales volume. Packaging consumption increased from 94 7kg/person reduced to 82 3kg/person. DSD has a turnover of 4.2 billion marks and created 17000 jobs

Table 4 recycling data of glass bottles in various countries

tab 4 the data of the reclaimed glass

ports in various countries

national production/× 103 t recovery/× 103 t recovery rate/%

Austria 1938544

Belgium 32612739

Denmark 1093532

France 2020 64626

Germany 34451102 37

Britain 729233 13

Ireland 8878

Italy 1526580 38

Netherlands 51632062

Spain 118626122

Switzerland 29814047

Turkey 12634 27

China 1000200 20

France announced in 1993 the waste of industrial and commercial packaging The waste disposal act stipulates that packaging manufacturers, beverage manufacturers and importers should be responsible for recycling packaging waste, otherwise they should pay special taxes for recycling, so as to allow the use of blue dot logo on commodity packaging. A non-profit eco - em2ballage began to assist local governments in the recycling of packaging waste, requiring a landfill rate of no more than 10%

Denmark formulated the package back to e-mail in 1984: amyxiang@ringiertrade.com bonniechai@ringiertrade.com According to the law, a network of classified and recycled packaging waste is set up throughout the country to prohibit the production of packaging products that are difficult to classify, and the shape that can be designed by contemporary packaging styles is more recycled than before, so that the recycling rate of packaging waste exceeds 50%

the UK established a "producer industry group" composed of 28 packaging, food and non food enterprises in 1992 to manage the recycling and establishment of packaging waste by local governments and packaging materials departments, requiring the recycling rate of packaging waste to reach 58%

Austria passed the packaging regulation and the packaging target regulation in 1992, and established an alstoff recycling organization composed of industrial departments in 1993, which is actually a non-profit joint-stock company with the participation of more than 400 companies

Belgium passed the national ecological tax law in 1993 and established the "foster Pallas" joint stock company, which is responsible for the recycling and reuse of packaging waste

Italy implemented the packaging waste recycling management act in 1990, focusing on liquid packaging and plastic packaging. A semi official recycling organization composed of packaging manufacturers and importers is responsible for the recycling and treatment of packaging waste. For non degradable plastic belts, another 100 lire recycling tax will be levied. The government has not completed the designated recovery profit of the year 2 When measuring the coaxiality of the force with the coaxiality automatic measuring instrument (or other measuring device with corresponding accuracy), clamp the test sample on the collet, install an electronic extensometer in the symmetrical direction of the sample, add it to 1% of the maximum experimental force, adjust it to zero, and then apply the experimental force to 4% of the maximum experimental force. Measure the elastic deformation of the opposite sides of the test sample, and the enterprises that measure the indicators three times in the direction perpendicular to each other will also levy additional tax

the Dutch government signed a voluntary agreement with legal significance with organizations related to different industries and packaging chains in 1990, which is called the "packaging covenant", A "SVM" responsible for packaging waste recycling and treatment has been established "Organization. The agreement requires that the recycling rate of packaging materials reach 40% in 1995, including 80% of glass, 60% of paper products, 75% of metal packaging and 50% of plastic. By 2000, 90% of non repetitive canned containers will be eliminated, and 60% of packaging waste requires recycling.

Switzerland published regulations on beverage packaging in 1991, requiring the implementation of a deposit system for beverage bottles, which is responsible for recycling by container manufacturers and beverage manufacturers, and stipulates recycling, reuse and recycling The quota of raw packaging prohibits the production of containers that cannot be recycled. In the United States, the federal government formulates the general policy, and each state government formulates the implementation regulations. Mil - Hdbk - 742 "waste disposal of military packaging materials" was published as early as 1973. In 1993, six states legislated and passed plastic recycling standards for the shells of shrimp, crab, fly maggots and insects, which divided plastics into seven categories. In 1994, more than 100 recycling laws came into force, and 77 new bills are under consideration. The packaging waste recycling system in the United States emphasizes the overall recycling goal, rather than putting forward recycling instructions for a certain packaging material. The recycling method and recovery rate are determined by market, economic and environmental factors, and the recycling cost is paid attention to, so as to turn it into energy as much as possible

Canada passed the national packaging agreement in 1990. In 1994, industry, retail organizations, associations and the International Federation of food and business individuals jointly established the Canadian packaging industry management pioneer Organization (CIPS) to implement it

Japan's "energy protection and promotion recycling law" came into force in 1993. As a part of it, the Ministry of trade, industry and industry is responsible for organizing relevant enterprises to implement it. In 1995, the container packaging recycling act was enacted to recycle all packaging containers

with reference to ISO 14000 and the relevant decrees or directives of Germany and the European Union, and in accordance with the law of the people's Republic of China on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste, China formulated the national standard GB/t 16716 - 1996 general rules for the treatment and utilization of packaging waste in 1996, which put forward some basic requirements and methods in principle, but they cannot be implemented due to the lack of detailed rules. In the 1990s, disposable fast food boxes made of plastic bags and foamed plastics were widely used in China, causing the so-called "white pollution" problem of damaging the landscape, polluting the environment and endangering human health, which has become the focus of attention of the people, deputies to the National People's Congress and the CPPCC, local and central leaders and various media. Environmental protection departments have issued instructions for many times, but the effect is limited. The problem of excessive or deceptive packaging of health products and moon cakes has also attracted the attention of all parties and urgently needs to be solved by legislation

Taiwan is under the unified management of the environmental protection agency. A resource recovery fund management committee has been established, with a special business group responsible for the recycling and treatment of packaging waste

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